Friday, June 9, 2023

Glossary of Diabetes Terms: Special Report: Diabetes in Delaware

Autoantibody test: This blood test, called the zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8Ab) test, is used along with other information and test results to determine if a person has type 1 diabetes and not any other type of diabetes.

Blood sugar monitoring or testing: A method of testing how much sugar is in your blood; Home blood-glucose monitoring involves pricking your finger with a lancing device, placing a drop of blood on a test strip, and inserting the test strip into a blood-glucose-testing meter that displays your blood glucose level. Blood-glucose testing can also be done in the laboratory. Blood-glucose monitoring three or four times a day is recommended for people with insulin-dependent diabetes. Depending on the situation, glucose testing may be recommended before meals, two hours after meals, at bedtime, in the middle of the night, and before and after exercise.

Blood Sugar: Also called blood glucose, this is the sugar that is in your bloodstream. People with type 2 diabetes have too much blood sugar because insulin levels or function are not working properly.
Certified Diabetes Educator (CDE): A health care professional who is certified by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) to teach people with diabetes how to manage their condition.

Fasting Plasma Glucose Test (FPG): The preferred method of screening for diabetes; FPG measures a person’s blood sugar level after fasting, or not eating anything for at least 8 hours. Normal fasting blood glucose is less than 100 milligrams per deciliter, or mg/dL. A fasting plasma glucose greater than 100 mg/dL and less than 126 mg/dL means that the person has impaired fasting glucose levels but may not have diabetes. Diabetes is diagnosed when the fasting blood glucose is greater than 126 mg/dL and when blood tests confirm abnormal results. These tests can be repeated the next day or by measuring glucose 2 hours after a meal. the result should show a high blood sugar of more than 200 mg/dL

gestational diabetes: a high blood sugar level that begins or is first recognized during pregnancy; Hormone changes during pregnancy affect the action of insulin, resulting in high blood sugar levels. Usually, blood sugar levels return to normal after the baby is born. However, women who have had gestational diabetes are at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Gestational diabetes can increase complications during labor and delivery and increase the rate of fetal complications related to the increased size of the baby.

Glucose: simple sugar found in the blood; It is the main source of energy of the body; Also known as “dextrose”.

Glucose tolerance test: A test to determine whether a person has diabetes; The test is done in the laboratory or doctor’s office in the morning before the person eats. A period of at least 8 hours without any food is recommended before performing the test. First, a sample of blood is taken in the fasting state. Then the person drinks some liquid that contains sugar. Two hours later, a second blood test is done. A fasting blood sugar equal to or greater than 126 mg/dl is considered diabetes. A fasting blood glucose between 100 mg/dL and 125 mg/dL is classified as poor fasting glucose. If a two-hour test result shows a blood sugar equal to or greater than 200 mg/dl, the person is considered to have diabetes. A two-hour blood glucose between 140 mg/dl and 199 mg/dl is classified as impaired glucose tolerance.

Home Blood Glucose Monitoring: One way a person can check how much sugar is in the blood; This is also called “self-monitoring of blood glucose”. Home glucose monitoring tests whole blood (plasma and blood cell components); Thus, results may differ from laboratory values ​​that test plasma values ​​of glucose. Typically, lab plasma values ​​may be higher than glucose checks performed at home with a glucose monitor.

Insulin: A hormone produced by the pancreas that helps the body use sugar for energy; Beta cells of the pancreas make insulin.
Insulin pump: A small, computerized device — about the size of a small cell phone — that is worn on a belt or carried in a pocket; An insulin pump has a small flexible tube with a thin needle on the end. The needle is inserted under the skin of the abdomen and taped in place. A carefully measured, steady flow of insulin is released into the body.

mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter): Measurement that indicates the amount of something, such as glucose, in a specific amount of blood.
Pancreas: An organ about the size of a hand behind the lower abdomen; It makes insulin so the body can use sugar for energy.

Type 1 Diabetes: a type of diabetes in which the insulin-producing cells (called beta cells) of the pancreas are damaged; People with type 1 diabetes make little or no insulin, so glucose cannot get into the body’s cells to be used as energy. This increases blood sugar. People with type 1 diabetes must use insulin injections to control their blood sugar.

Diabetes Type 2: a type of diabetes in which the insulin produced is either not enough or the individual’s body does not respond to the amount normally present; Therefore, glucose in the blood cannot enter the body’s cells to be used as energy. This leads to an increase in the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood.

Source: WebMD

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